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The public debate mentioned in the introduction of this article Arendap a good example of how different perceptions of phatic talk can cause turmoil, and shows the necessity of further studies into sociocultural differences in phatic i. Comparing different CMD channels, Herring (2017) argues that in public CMD, such Arenadl the online discussion forums in the present corpus, people tend to care less about face work than in private CMD (e. Flaming means aggressively attacking a specific topic and the sender behind it (Crystal 2018:58). Values serve as standards for what is good or bad, worth Dating norway in Arendal or avoiding, and so on (Schwartz 2018: 4). The way they become visible to others is usually by being reflected in pragmatic norms (Wierzbicka 1985: 173), and as mentioned by Cruz above, norms are often sociocultural conventions that the community has in norwaj. However, as cited in the introduction with regards to studies on American communication, there is, to the best of my knowledge, no evidence that national culture imply homogeneity Dating norway in Arendal norms. In this study, I do not only look at the Dsting of the responses but Datinv at how their opinions are linguistically manifested. In total, there are 1312 comments from readers to the six texts above. Most of those contributing to the comment sections are Norwegians, but fifty-one define themselves as non-Norwegian. Age is not specified, ib one can often make a qualified guess based on language, the content, or the attached photo. The Arendak has Dahing conducted in accordance with the traditions of qualitative content analysis (Glaser and Strauss 1967) where analyzing is an inductive process going back and forth between data and conceptualization. The quotes from the corpus used in this article have been translated into English by the author. There is always a danger that nuances are lost in translation. In some cases, when the selected quote does not clarify the agent of the statement, the nationality is placed Datihg brackets, e. As mentioned above, not all the responses could be placed into one of the two categories outlined in 3. However, since the scope in this article is limited to Norwegian perceptions, Im here to date with guys & girls in Norway views are Datinv represented in the quotes below. When it comes to Norwegian readers, the total number of clearly supportive statements in the comment sections was less (275) than those defending Norwegian norms (367). However, the difference is not substantial enough to state that any of the groups can represent the Norwegian population. Whether supportive or defensive, their statements contain value-laden expressions which are highlighted in bold below. The quotes have been translated into English by the author and are presented in accordance with the procedures given in 3. There is a sense of embarrassment on behalf of fellow Norwegians, and a belief that people could, if they would, pull themselves together and show better manners. The quotes below have been chosen because they represent some of the commonly held views among those who defend the Norwegian communicative norms. Categorizing the expressions highlighted in 4. For the purpose of the discussion that follows, these (shown in bold) and terms with similar meaning are grouped together in table 1. Table 1: Summary of value-laden terms used in 4. However, the Norwegian opinions about Americans provide an interesting view on their own values with regards to phatic talk, and those are further discussed below. Coupland defined phatic talk as something people use when there is minimal commitment to seriousness and factuality, but it still has a positive social value. There are examples when Norwegian students, who think they have been invited, surprise Americans by turning up on their doorstep (e. Those who criticize it, do not. References to the quotes in section 4 are given in brackets. According to the findings from those who defend Norwegian practices, it seems that phatic talk is not tied to being friendly (relational, sociable, polite) towards strangers as much as it might be to others. In view of this, it is easier to understand why these Norwegians portray people who use much phatic talk towards relative strangers as importunate (8) or tiresome (12). As mentioned in the introduction, studies on Norwegian communication practices are scarce in number, and, for the large part, anecdotal. However, the findings in this study support some of the anecdotes. Gray (2018:57) holds that in Norway one does not greet a stranger out of fear of threatening negative face by intruding on his or her personal space. This study finds that, to the Norwegian respondents who defend Norwegian norms, politeness is targeted towards the negative face of the interlocutor by not disturbing him with unnecessary talk, and when one does talk, to be meaningful, genuine, to the point, and quiet rather than to engage in small talk. Thus, not to use phatic talk does not indicate impoliteness, even if that is how people with other expectations judge it. Still, an interesting question is why the comments from these Norwegians express such a degree of skepticism towards using exchanges with a phatic interpretation. Why is using phatic talk, which aims to build positive social relationships (Coupland 1992, section two), described as empty, fake, excessive and loud. Coupland argued that when an utterance is interpreted as phatic, it is normally because the informational purpose is considered rather weak. He saw phatic talk as purposeless expressions because it had no propositional content. The Norwegians in question, however, seem to be of the opinion that without content, silence is a better option (28). Further, they seem to agree with the German view on phatic talk described by House (section two). According to her, Germans evaluate phatic talk similarly to a lie. There is another discussion in the data that has to do with what formulaic expressions serve best in a Norwegian setting. That is, it is rarely used towards strangers, but rather towards people one is already acquainted with in order to ask about their factual well-being (non-phatic interpretation). If Emily, in her story in the introduction, had greeted the unknown girl with any of these instead of a hand shake (which Norwegian youngsters never use towards each other, and which is perceived as relatively formal and committed even by adults), she might have caused less bewilderment to the girl. The findings in this study might lend the impression that Norwegians avoid phatic talk all together. However, one must bear in mind that these data only comment on small talk towards strangers, not towards ingroup members, i. It is possible that Americans and Norwegians are not so different when talking to ingroup members, and this is a possible topic for another study. In addition, this study needs to be supplemented by data uttered under non-defensive circumstances, and examine Norwegian small talk in a number of contexts (e.
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Russia invaded Finland in 1808 and forced Sweden to cede that province at the peace of Fredrikshamn in 1809.
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The inept government of King Gustav IV Adolf led to his deposition and banishment. A new constitution was introduced, and his uncle Charles XIII was enthroned. Since he was childless, Sweden chose as his successor the commander in chief of the Norwegian army, Prince Christian August of Augustenborg.
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However, Arebdal sudden death in Dating norway in Arendal forced the Swedes to look for another candidate, and once more they Arenal an enemy officer. Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, would be named the next king. Bernadotte was originally one of Napoleon's eighteen Marshals. Sweden decided to join the alliance against France in 1813 and was promised Norway as a reward. After the battle of Leipzig in October 1813, Bernadotte abandoned the pursuit of Napoleon and marched against Denmark, where he forced the king of Denmark-Norway to conclude the Treaty of Kiel on 14 January 1814.
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Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden, but Denmark retained the Norwegian Atlantic possessions of the Dating norway in Arendal Islands, Iceland, and Greenland. However, the treaty of Kiel never came into force. Norway declared its independence, adopted a liberal constitution, and elected Prince Christian Frederik as king.
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After a short war with Sweden, Norway had to concede to a personal union with Sweden at the Convention of Moss. King Christian Frederik abdicated and left for Denmark in October, and the Norwegian Storting (parliament) elected the Swedish king as Noreay of Norway, after having enacted such amendments to the constitution as were necessary to allow for the union with Sweden.
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On 14 January 1814, at the Treaty of Kiel, the king of Denmark-Norway ceded Norway to the king of Sweden. The terms of the treaty provoked widespread opposition in Norway. The Norwegian vice-roy and heir to the throne of Denmark-Norway, Christian Frederik took the lead in a national uprising, assumed the title of regent, and convened a constitutional assembly at Eidsvoll. On 17 May 1814 the Constitution of Norway was signed by the assembly, and Christian Frederik was elected as Arendao of independent Norway.
The Swedish king rejected the premise of an independent Norway and launched a military campaign on 27 July 1814, with an attack on the Hvaler Datinv and the city of Fredrikstad.
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The Swedish army was superior in numbers, was better equipped and trained, and was led by one of Napoleon's foremost generals, the newly elected Swedish crown prince, Jean Baptiste Bernadotte. Battles were short and decisively won by the Swedes. Armistice negotiations concluded on 14 August 1814. In the peace negotiations, Christian Frederik agreed to relinquish claims to the Norwegian crown and return to Denmark if Sweden would accept the democratic Norwegian constitution and a loose personal union. On 4 November 1814, the Norwegian Parliament adopted the constitutional amendments required to enter a union with Sweden, and elected king Charles XIII as king of Norway.